Adults at various ages expect increasing developmental losses and decreasing gains in psychological functioning across adulthood and particularly in advanced older age (J. Heckhausen, Dixon, & Baltes, 1989). These gains and losses at older ages are expected to be less controllable (J. Heckhausen & Baltes, 1991), and older adults perceive developmental change (Lang & Heckhausen, 2001) and life regrets (Wrosch & Heckhausen, 2002) to be less controllable than do young adults. The regulatory challenge in these cases lies in identifying when goal pursuit is maladaptive while it is still ongoing and the individual is fully engaged. In such situations, it seems necessary that nonbiased, reality-oriented monitoring processes operate in the background, allowing the individual to disengage from goals that are no longer feasible or desirable. In fact, there is evidence that such monitoring processes occur, influenced by the cognitive and emotional concomitants of difficulty with goal pursuit. Further, the undesirable change in affect arising from difficulty with goal pursuits, can affect goal-directed behaviors and even lead to its termination.
Courtesy Dr. Byron Bernal, Miami Children’s Hospital, Radiology Department, Miami, FL, USA. It should be pointed out that decreased asymmetry is observed not only in the neocortex but also in other brain areas, including the hippocampus. Maguire and Frith selected 12 young (23–39 years old) and 12 older subjects (67–80) and asked them to retrieve real-life autobiographical event memories accrued over decades. Several commonalities were observed between the younger and older groups in terms of the network of brain areas activated during retrieval. However, while left hippocampal activation was apparent in the younger group, bilateral hippocampal activation was manifested in the older adults. Direct comparisons of the two groups confirmed significantly greater right hippocampal activation in those older adults.
This tool has been found to help understand and surveillance attachment, such as the Strange Situation Test and the Adult Attachment Interview. Both of which help determine factors to certain attachment styles. The Strange Situation Test help finds “disturbances in attachment” and whether certain attributes are found to contribute to a certain attachment issue.
Wrosch C, Heckhausen J, Lachman ME. Primary and secondary control strategies for managing health and financial stress across adulthood. Research has begun to develop and test intervention strategies for some of these control-related challenges. Most people upload pre recorded video to facebook live have a sense of being actively involved in shaping their lives. They follow developmental paths that are coherent in terms of identifying and effectively pursuing long-term goals and, when necessary, disengaging from goals that are no longer attainable.
Structural change versus behavioral change represents the third developmental issue to be discussed. This particular developmental issue is a direct extension of the structure-function versus antecedent-consequent developmental issue. Essentially, this developmental issue addresses the question, “What changes and what direction does it change?”. The organism according to this viewpoint is active and change occurs and is directed towards some end point or goal. Change is also viewed as qualitative or structural and as such it is only unidirectional. Change is determined by external forces outside of the organism.
Thus, an individual1s development is shaped dramatically by one’s context and the individual in turn then impacts their context. Clearly, more work and research needs to be done to explore these concepts, theories, and ideas. My personal perspective is primarily a life-span developmental perspective. The individual should be viewed as a whole from a multidisciplinary perspective. In other words, one must look at the individual and the context within which they live and develop. This is particularly important as change is postulated to occur in response to an interaction between the individual and their context.
At the same time, interactions with the environment also aid in our development of more effective strategies for processing information. Figure 1.1Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence and more recently, aging and the entire life span. Previously, the message was once you are 25, your development is essentially completed. Our academic knowledge of the lifespan has changed, and although there is still less research on adulthood than on childhood, adulthood is gaining increasing attention.
An egocentric child is not able to infer the perspective of other people and instead attributes his own perspective. The survey method asks individuals to self-report important information about their thoughts, experiences, and beliefs. An example of comprehensive survey was the research done by Ruth W. Howard. In 1947, she obtained her doctorate by surveying 229 sets of triplets, the most comprehensive research of triplets completed at the time. This pioneering woman was also the first African-American woman to earn a PhD in psychology .