Thus, reduced tongue fat should improve muscle function and could prevent collapsibility during sleep. Regardless of mechanism, our results underscore the potential efficacy of OSA therapies that reduce tongue fat. In summary, the change in diversity of the samples in the T group between the start and end of the successful weight loss program is indicative of the effect of treatment on the fecal microbiota composition of horses.
NC was calculated at the upper third, middle third, and lower third of the neck, and an average of those three measurements was also recorded. GC was measured around the thorax behind the withers, and WC was measured at the widest point of the abdomen. Outline of the exercise regime of the treatment group in minutes on automated walker. We kindly thank the Turku Proteomics Facility, the University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University for performing the mass spectrometry analysis. The Turku Proteomics facility is supported by Biocenter Finland. We also thank the CSC–IT Center for Science, Finland, for computational resources.
However, the animals’ excess weight made adequate visualization of the heart impossible. Although the time period of this study was short, it was similar to other weight loss investigations and enabled the target weight loss to be achieved. The fecal microbiota has been shown to reflect the large intestinal microbiota, but, of course, does not represent changes directly . However, fecal sampling is readily accessible and non-invasive and, thus, is a valuable tool in investigations of disorders of the equine gut and particularly the large intestine. As this study was not carried out under experimental license, we did not take invasive samples to measure the effects of diet and exercise on changes in insulin dynamics and adipokine levels.
The data presented in the study are deposited in the ENA repository, accession number ERP127102. Initial processing of samples was carried out within 6 h of collection. The fecal ball was removed from the container, and a 10-g sample was taken from the center of the ball for both metabolome and microbiota analysis and placed in a sterile container. These samples were numerically labeled so as not to bias the analysis and were stored at −80 °C until further processing.
The horses were fed 2% of their body weight with fresh weight grass hay that was soaked for 1 h prior to administration. They were also made accustomed to an automated horse walker, together with sand paddocks that would be used for turn out purposes during the trial. Mitochondria are essential for cellular energy homeostasis, yet their role in subcutaneous adipose tissue during different types of weight-loss interventions remains unknown. Feng Y, Keenan BT, Wang S, Leinwand S, Wiemken A, Pack AI, et al.
These results indicate that the majority of transcripts targeting mitochondria were affected by the weight-loss percentage in DiOGenes and KOBS, although in opposing directions. All data were analyzed using SPSS for Mac (version 24.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) or R statistical programming language (version 3.3.3). The ITGB3 construct was either mock methylated or methylated using 1600 μM S-adenosylmethionine and two different DNA methyltransferases, SssI and HhaI . Mouse muscle cell lines C2C12 were cultured in DMEM, supplemented with 10% serum and 1% of an antibiotic/antimycotic mixture. Cells were co-transfected with 100 ng of pCpGL-basic with the ITGB3 promoter insert or without and 2 ng of pRL renilla luciferase control reporter vector using the Lipofectamine 3000 transfection reagent .
Delivery of GEM sessions could occur in diabetes group visits, and although delivered by certified diabetes education and care specialists in the study, GEM could also be delivered by other primary care practice staff or peer counselors. While WL responders could not be predicted, 73% of GEM long-term responders were predicted by short-term improvement in reductions of HbA1c, diabetes medication and BMI. While there may be some yet assessed physiological factors that contribute to being a GEM responder, our data suggest that for GEM participants only, the greater investment in making short-term goals may translate into more sustained benefits. Table 3 presents baseline demographic, psychological and disease variables. Future research needs to focus on increasing the proportion of long-term responders, possibly by boosting short-term benefits. Figure 3.Differences in several taxa between individuals indicating the high interindividual variation in gut microbiota composition.
Our results confirm reproducibility of MRI measurements at two time points. Nearly all measures showed substantial or almost perfect reproducibility within weight-stable individuals. Moderate-to-fair reproducibility was observed for fat pad volume, as well does leek juice help with weight loss as total and subcutaneous abdominal fat. The likely explanation for this comparatively lower reproducibility is related to lumbar flexion/extension and its effect on the L4–L5 junction, which is the inferior boundary for the abdominal fat measurements.
DAVID gene ontology analysis of the DMC genes that was decreased in the post-surgery group revealed an enrichment in 11 functional categories . The top two significant functional groups were DNA binding and regulation of RNA metabolic process . Moreover, Additional file 1 shows a number of developmental functional groups identified including skeletal system morphogenesis and embryonic skeletal system development/morphogenesis. DAVID gene ontology analysis on the genes with increased DMCs post-surgery identified 11 enriched groups . The heat shock protein binding was the most significantly enriched group.
Table 2 presents changes over 13 months (13-month follow-up minus baseline) comparing responders to non-responders for both treatments. Responders were defined as any participant who reduced TTE by −0.5 or more. The TTE is a more discriminating metric than HbA1c with regard to comparing treatment efficacy, as change in A1c does not consider any concurrent change in BG-lowering medications prescribed over follow-up. During the taro + beetroot period, 6 g of beetroot powder was mixed with the chocolate drinks.