There is strong evidence of woody shrub encroachment throughout this and other biomes (Hoffman and O’Connor, 1999). Graziers attempt to control the woody encroachment using a number of approaches, including clear felling; burning followed by intensive browsing by goats; and chemical control. The last-named seems to be the favoured approach, with an estimated R 10 million spent annually on herbicides.
The country has a mean altitude of 3,300 feet and consists largely of a sand-filled basin, with gently undulating plains rising to highlands in neighbouring countries. The highest point is 4,888 feet in the hills north of Lobatse in southeastern Botswana; the lowest point is 2,170 feet at the country’s easternmost point, in the Limpopo valley. Botswana has made great strides in educational development since independence in 1966. At that time there were very few graduates in the country and only a very small percentage of the population attended secondary school.
It is this wide variation in the origins of its people that make understanding the management of its natural resources so challenging. The remaining San people of the southern Kalahari represent the oldest traditional users of natural vegetation for survival. San people are still able to subsist as hunter-gatherers in the most arid regions of the country, providing some evidence of how it is possible to sustain small human populations in this region. San exhibit a strong understanding of resource limitations and probably follow the principles embodied in the disequilibrium theory the closest of all southern African people.
Although Palmer et al. did not investigate nutrient loss, there were significant differences between land-scape-scale organizations, with communal landscape having a lower landscape functionality index than the freehold grassland. There was greater patchiness in the communal landscape, with longer fetches than the landscape with a long history of commercial management. In accordance with Ludwig et al. , it is recommended that rehabilitation of degraded rangelands in South Africa should strive to reduce the extent of runoff zones and increase the resource control exercised by patches. The exclusion of fire from the savannah regions under communal management has encouraged bush encroachment. In the semi -arid regions of Mpumalanga, the Northern Province and the North West province, fire has generally been excluded. Cutting large trees for fuel or building material has resulted in coppice growth and has stimulated shrubbiness.
The principal form of dryland fodder is cereal crop residues, which make an important contribution to livestock diets in communal areas during the dry season. Some communal area farmers collect and store at least part of their residues to feed to selected animals, such as milch cows and draught oxen, but most is utilized in situ. The grasslands support a high proportion (70-80 percent) of the total sheep and wool produced.
The official language of Botswana is English, while Setswana is widely spoken across the country. In Setswana, prefixes are more important than they are in many other languages, since Setswana is a Bantu language and has noun classes denoted by these prefixes. They include Bo, which refers to the country, Ba, which refers to the people, Mo, which is one person, and Se which is the language. For example, the main ethnic group of Botswana is the Tswana people, hence the name Botswana for its country.
The main breeds of sheep are fine-wool Merino, the South African mutton Merino, Dohne Merino, Dormer, Dorper (the last-named two are locally developed breeds) and the Karakul. The Nama-karoo, a steppe like vegetation of the central and western regions, supports both sheep and goat enterprises. The Karakul industry is limited to the dry northwestern regions of Northern Cape Province.
Although these products are not produced in conventional commercial systems, they contribute substantially to the economy and food security of these regions. In this chapter, we will introduce the role of grasslands in this economy based on communal land tenure systems. At 0.19 million square miles (0.49 million sq. km), the Great Basin is one of the “big four” deserts in North America. Located directly north of the Mojave Desert, it is a dry expanse of clay, silt, and sand; however, as a semiarid desert, it receives a fair amount of snow during the winter months.
The southern part of the Syrian Desert merges with the larger Arabian Desert. The surface of the desert is bare and rocky, and contains scattered wadis or dry riverbeds. This entire region is a cold desert scrub steppe, made up of rocky shrubland and thorn thicket puerto rico what to pack and experiencing year-round frosts and constant winds. Despite this, Patagonia is home to an array of wildlife including foxes, llamas, armadillos, and more. It is located in Southern Africa, covering most of Botswana, as well parts of Namibia, and South Africa.